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The last decades have seen significant improvements in the care of premature infants. The introduction of new approaches, especially in the ventilatory management, have led to significant increase of survival rate of low and extremely low gestational age infants. These populations of neonates, however, often experience prolonged mechanical ventilation, which is widely recognized to be closely related to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) development. The management of BPD, which is a multifactorial disease, requires a multidisciplinary approach and remains challenging for all the physicians involved. In fact, short and long-term sequelae are not only related to pulmonary performances but include neurological impairment and growth deficiency. A proper nutrition management since the very first days has shown to significantly contribute to the optimal maturation and functionality of the lung. In this paper, we aim to give an overall of the main principles of nutrition in infants born prematurely, with specific regard to the interventions, which could be relevant in infants affected by BPD.
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