Factors related to anxiety before surgery in children in urological operating rooms

Published: 20 May 2021
Abstract Views: 1870
PDF: 282
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


This study aimed to determine the factors associated with preoperative anxiety in school-age children and adolescents at one of top hospital in the capital city of Indonesia. This study used analytical cross-sectional study. The selection of respondents used proportional stratified random sampling with a total of 86 respondents consisting of 43 school age children and 43 adolescents. Data analysis employed was the Chi-Square and Independent TTest. The results showed that anxiety was being experienced by 54.7% of respondents. In this study, it was found that there was a significant relationship (p<α) among children anxiety before surgery and age, family presence, previous operating experience and patient waiting time. Meanwhile, there was no significant relationship between gender and anxiety level before surgery in children. The results of this study can be used as the basis and reference for the hospital in making policies regarding efforts to manage anxiety before surgery in children. Accordingly, nurses could make appropriate nursing care interventions in preoperative patients to overcome preoperative anxiety experienced by schoolage children and adolescents.

Hockenberry M, Wilson D, Rodgers C. Wong’s essentials of pediatric nursing. 10th ed. Canada: Elsevier Pte Ltd; 2017.

Baghele A, Dave N, Dias R, Shah H. Effect of preoperative education on anxiety in children undergoing day-care surgery. Indian J Anaesth 2019;63:565-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/ija.IJA_37_19

Fortier MA, Kain ZN. Treating perioperative anxiety and pain in children: a tailored and innovative approach. Paediatr Anaesth 2015;25:27-35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/pan.12546

Vaezzadeh N, Douki ZE, Hadipour A, et al. The effect of performing preoperative preparation program on school age children’s anxiety. Iran J Pediatr 2011;21:461-6.

Adams HA. A perioperative education program for pediatric patients and their parents. AORN J 2019;93:472-81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aorn.2010.11.030

Perry JN, Hooper VD, Masiongale J. Reduction of preoperative anxiety in pediatric surgery patients using age-appropriate teaching interventions. J Perianesth Nurs 2012;27:69-81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jopan.2012.01.003

Matthyssens LE, Vanhulle A, Seldenslach L, et al. A pilot study of the effectiveness of a serious game CliniPup ® on perioperative anxiety and pain in children. J Pediatr Surg 2020;55:304-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.10.031

Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Central Public Hospital (RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo). Internal Data for RSCM Operation Room Urology Unit. Jakarta: Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Nasional Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo; 2019.

Meletti DP, Meletti JFA, Camargo RPS, et al. Psychological preparation reduces preoperative anxiety in children. Randomized and double-blind trial. J Pediatr (Rio J) 2019;95:545-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedp.2018.08.008

Nurlita L. Pengaruh buku cerita bergambar terhadap kecemasan sebelum operasi pada anak usia sekolah di RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung. Thesis. Depok: Universitas Indonesia; 2015.

Li HCW, Lopez V. Development and validation of a short form of the Chinese version of the state anxiety scale for children. Int J Nurs Stud 2007;44:566-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/t31429-000

de Moura LA, Dias IMG, Pereira LV. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years. J Pediatr Nurs 2016;24:e2708. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1518-8345.0723.2708

Aytekin A, Doru Ö, Kucukoglu S. The effects of distraction on preoperative anxiety level in children. J Perianesth Nurs 2016;31:56-62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jopan.2014.11.016

Bartik K, Toruner EK. Effectiveness of a preoperative preparation program on children’s emotional states and parental anxiety. J Perianesth Nurs 2018;33:972-80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jopan.2017.09.008

Nigussie S, Belachew T, Wolancho W. Predictors of preoperative anxiety among surgical patients in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital, South Western Ethiopia. BMC Surg 2014;14:67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2482-14-67

Ahmed MI, Farrell MA, Parrish K, Karla A. Preoperative anxiety in children risk factors and non-pharmacological management. Middle East J Anaesthesiol 2011;21:153-64.

Stuart GW. Principles and practice of psychiatric nursing. 10th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2013.

DeMaso DR, Snell C. Promoting coping in children facing pediatric surgery. Semin Pediatr Surg 2013;22:134-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2013.04.004

Sadeghi A, Tabari AK, Mahdavi A, et al. Impact of parental presence during induction of anesthesia on anxiety level among pediatric patients and their parents: a randomized clinical trial. J Neupsychiatr Dis Treat 2017;12:3237-41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S119208

Ozdogan HK, Cetinalp S, Kuran G, et al. The effects of maternal presence during anesthesia induction on salivary cortisol levels in children undergoing tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. J Clin Anesth 2017;39:64-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2017.03.001

Kurniasari, E., & Agustini, N. (2021). Factors related to anxiety before surgery in children in urological operating rooms. La Pediatria Medica E Chirurgica, 43(s1). https://doi.org/10.4081/pmc.2021.261


Download data is not yet available.