The effectiveness of mental health nursing promotive and preventive model on protective factors, risk factors and adolescents’ mental health

Published: 28 March 2023
Abstract Views: 207
PDF: 201
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


Adolescents are at risk in experiencing mental health problems if the risk factors owned are more than the protective factors. This study aims to identify the effectiveness of Mental Health nursing promotive and preventive models on protective factors, risk factors and Adolescents’ Mental Health. This research was with quasi-experiment, design employed randomization control group pre and post-test design conducted on 240 adolescents, which was divided into both groups equally. The study found that protective factors (self-esteem, family relationship, and prosocial ability) has increased after intervention model by 10.2%; 4.4%; 15.7%, respectively, risk factors (bullying behavior, anxiety, emotional problems, behavioral problems, and peer problems) has decreased after the intervention model by 9.8%; 26.1%; 25.9%; 17.5%; 22.4%, respectively. The model also increased the adolescents’ mental health after intervention model by 14.9%. The mental health nursing promotive and preventive model is effective to increase the mental health of adolescents by 21.3%. Mental health nursing’ promotive and preventive model could be used as basic needs to implement early detection regarding mental health of adolescents in the UKS scope and involving teachers’ role, as well as parents in maintaining mental health.

Muris P. A protective factor against mental health problems in youths? A critical note on the assessment of self-compassion. J Child Fam Stud 2016;25:1461–5. DOI:

Johnson D, Dupuis G, Piche J, et al. Adult mental health outcomes of adolescent depression: A systematic review. Depress Anxiety 2018;35:700–16. DOI:

Bell SL, Audrey S, Gunnell D, et al. The relationship between physical activity, mental wellbeing and symptoms of mental health disorder in adolescents: a cohort study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2019;16:1–12. DOI:

Damanik NS, Keliat BA, Susanti H. Pengaruh terapi kognitif perilaku kelompok dan psikoedukasi keluarga terhadap prodroma early psychosis, ansietas, dan harga diri pada remaja di Sekolah Menengah Pertama. [The effect of group behavior cognitive therapy and family psychoeducation on the prodroma of early psychosis, anxiety, and self-esteem in adolescents in junior high schools.] FIK-UI, Jakarta. 2017;

Rahayu A, Keliat BA, Mustikasati M, Erawati E. Standard nursing treatment on adolescents with early prodromal psychosis: a quasi-experimental study. Online Brazilian J Nurs 2018;17. DOI:

Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Main Results of Riskesdas 2018. Jakarta: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia 2018.

Radez J, Reardon T, Creswell C, et al. Why do children and adolescents (not) seek and access professional help for their mental health problems? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021;30:183–211. DOI:

Sapthiang S, Van Gordon W, Shonin E. Mindfulness in schools: A health promotion approach to improving adolescent mental health. Int J Ment Health Addict 2019;17:112–9. DOI:

Aguirre Velasco A, Cruz ISS, Billings J, et al. What are the barriers, facilitators and interventions targeting help-seeking behaviours for common mental health problems in adolescents? A systematic review. BMC Psych 2020;20:1–22. DOI:

Arango C, Díaz-Caneja CM, McGorry PD, et al. Preventive strategies for mental health. Lancet Psych 2018;5:591–604. DOI:

Babić R, Babić M, Rastović P, et al. Resilience in health and illness. Psychiatr Danub 2020;32:226–32.

Barbeito S, Sánchez-Gutiérrez T, Mayoral M, et al. Mobile app–based intervention for adolescents with first-episode psychosis: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial. Front Psych 2019;10:27. DOI:

Calvo A, Sánchez-Gutiérrez T, Barbeito S, et al. A mobile app-based intervention for adolescents with first-episode psychosis: the think app. 2019; Available from:

MacDougall AG, Price E, Vandermeer MRJ, et al. Youth‐focused group mindfulness‐based intervention in individuals with early psychosis: A randomized pilot feasibility study. Early Interv Psychiatry 2019;13:993–8. DOI:

World Health Organization. Child and adolescent mental health policies and plans. World Health Organization; 2005.

Triana R, Keliat BA, Wardani IY, et al. Understanding the protective factors (self-esteem, family relationships, social support) and adolescents’ mental health in Jakarta. Enferm Clin 2019;29:629–33. DOI:

Aldam SFS, Keliat BA, Wardani IY, et al. Risk factors of mental health in adolescents: emotional, behavioral, family, and peer relationship problems. Compr Child Adolesc Nurs 2019;42:284–90. DOI:

Liu JJW, Reed M, Girard TA. Advancing resilience: An integrative, multi-system model of resilience. Pers Individ Dif 2017;111:111–8. DOI:

Chu XW, Fan CY, Lian SL, Zhou ZK. Does bullying victimization really influence adolescents’ psychosocial problems? A three-wave longitudinal study in China. J Affect Disord 2019;246:603–10. DOI:

Brackenreed D. Resilience and Risk. Int Educ Stud 2010;3:111–21. DOI:

Collishaw S, Hammerton G, Mahedy L, et al. Mental health resilience in the adolescent offspring of parents with depression: a prospective longitudinal study. Lancet Psych 2016;3:49–57. DOI:

Al-Zawaadi A, Hesso I, Kayyali R. Mental health among school-going adolescents in Greater London: a cross-sectional study. Front Psychiatry 2021;12:592624. DOI:

Clarke A, Pote I, Sorgenfrei M. Adolescent mental health evidence brief 1: Prevalence of disorders. Early Interv Found. 2020; Available from:

Triana R, Keliat BA, Sulistiowati NMD. The relationship between self-esteem, family relationships and social support as the protective factors and adolescent mental health. Humanit Soc Sci Rev 2019;7:41–7. DOI:

Kiuru N, Wang MT, Salmela-Aro K, et al. Associations between adolescents’ interpersonal relationships, school well-being, and academic achievement during educational transitions. J Youth Adolesc 2020;49:1057–72. DOI:

Cowie H, Myers CA. School bullying and mental health: Risks, intervention and prevention. Routledge; 2017. DOI:

García-Moya I, Johansson K, Ragnarsson S, et al. School experiences in relation to emotional and conduct problems in adolescence: a 3-year follow up study. Eur J Public Health 2019;29:436–41. DOI:

Keyes CLM. Mental health as a complete state: How the salutogenic perspective completes the picture. Bridg Occup Organ public Heal 2014;179–92. DOI:

Moore GF, Cox R, Evans RE, et al. School, peer and family relationships and adolescent substance use, subjective wellbeing and mental health symptoms in Wales: A cross sectional study. Child Indic Res 2018;11:1951–65. DOI:

Lindow JC, Hughes JL, South C, et al. The youth aware of mental health intervention: impact on help seeking, mental health knowledge, and stigma in US adolescents. J Adolesc Heal 2020;67:101–7. DOI:

Sulistiowati, N. M. D., Keliat, B. A., Ismail, R. I., Besral, B., & Lanang Triana, I. K. D. (2023). The effectiveness of mental health nursing promotive and preventive model on protective factors, risk factors and adolescents’ mental health. La Pediatria Medica E Chirurgica, 45(s1).


Download data is not yet available.